Fritillaria orientalis

Fritillaria orientalis Adams


Conservation status:
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Vulnerable (VU)
The species is protected by the Biodiversity Act of the Republic of Bulgaria.
The plant is bulbous, herbaceous, perennial plant of the family Liliaceae. The bulb has a diameter of 3 cm. The stem is 15-50 cm high. Its leaves are linear, as in its main part they are opposite and the stems are consistent. The flowers are large, 3-3.5 cm in diameter, wide, bell-formed, outside dark red with little or many dark red spots, usually single, up to 2-3, located on top of the stem, hanging. It blooms from April to May.
It grows on dry, grassy places, meadows, grasslands, bushy places, in the vicinities of forests, in the belt of xerothermic oak forests, often on limestone.
The general distribution includes the countries of Southeast Europe, as well as France, Austria, the Caucasus, Turkey. In Bulgaria it is met in the floristic regions Northeast Bulgaria, Danubian Plain, Eastern Stara Planina, Vitosha, Sofia, Znepol, Western Boundary Mountains and Struma valley  between 500-1400 m above sea level. On the territory of Malesh Mountain it is met in the reserve "Tisata", in the locality "Tsarkvishte", in the habitats of Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and broad-leaved phillyrea (Phillyrea latifolia).

Threatening factors are loss or deterioration of the quality of its habitats, collecting its flowers for bouquets.

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